The origin of a cappella is the church music in Europe. In order to know the background that a cappella was produced, let's see the history of the music in Europe.
History of the music in Europe
【Western music before a Gregorian chant】
It seems that the chorus and the performance of a musical instrument were performed in B.C. as the dramatic music in ancient Greece. Although, as for the musical instrument, the stringed instrument and the whistle seemed to be in the mainstream, the musical actual condition is unknown.
It is thought that the original hymn was produced being subject to the influence of the music of a spot as Christianity spreads in the area in the Mediterranean.
The Roman Catholic acknowledges the "head temple" of Christianity. Since the style of the religious rite was diversified in various places, they defined the unified style. They tried to centralize authority on Rome.
The hymn also became the object. It is an established theory that the time is a pope GregoryⅠ(590-604) neighborhood about.
The name of the Gregorian chant was attached to the hymn institutionalized in Rome. However, the present established theory is negative.
Western music develops based on this Gregorian chant. The feature of a Gregorian chant is the following two.
1) All the members sing a single melody. This melody is called monophony.
2) Although the score devised later has prescribed the height of sound, there is no concept of the length of sound. All the sound is sung by the same length.
If monotonous, people will get bored even if it is sacred music. The motion which is going to add another melody appears from the end of the 9th century to the middle of the 10th century. This is birth of polyphony. Polyphony means that there are many melodies.
At first, submelody carried out only the fixed motion. It came to move freely gradually.
French polyphony became famous in the 14th century. This is called chanson.
Originally the Renaissance is a term which means reproduction and revival in French. It generated as ancient art revival movement in Italy in the 14th century, and spread through all Europe.
However, the "ancient times" which should be made an example in music was not left behind in the form of a score etc. When music was the former, it belonged to the church and was composed for God. People came to evaluate the sacred music as art. This is the change which took place to the Renaissance.
As a result, the polyphony which began at medieval times progressed. Moreover, the work also became to what was able to take the balance very much.
Thus, the method of producing harmony using the voice from which sound is different was produced. If a score is also before a Gregorian chant, we can know more things. There was history of music wonderful probably. I would like to know.